A to Z of automated driving
Adaptive cruise control (ACC)
Adaptive cruise control is a system regulating the vehicle’s speed, which also automatically maintains a set safety distance from the vehicle in front by accelerating and braking.
Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS)
Additional electronic devices in motor vehicles for supporting the driver in certain driving situations. They focus on safety aspects, and on enhancing driving comfort.
The region around one or more core towns that are surrounded by a closer, densely built-up belt of suburbs and a geographically wider catchment area that is sometimes rural.
Anti-lock braking system (ABS)
Prevents the wheels from locking during braking. It regulates the braking pressure so the driver can still steer the vehicle.
Describes the increasing automation of driving and parking functions. Depending on its type, a function can take over longitudinal and/or lateral control of the vehicle.
Blind spot monitoring
Blind spot monitoring detects objects in the driver’s blind spot and informs/warns them of a potential collision when they intend to change lanes.
Car-to-car communication (C2C)
This form of connected communication is the exchange of data between two or more vehicles via WLAN 802.11p, which warn one another of obstacles on the road, aquaplaning, and other hazards.
Car-to-infrastructure communication (C2I)
This approach involves wireless communication via WLAN 802.11p between vehicles and elements of the infrastructure. These infrastructure components may be intelligent traffic lights or wireless nodes used for establishing communication via the Internet to infotainment platforms or to the vehicle manufacturer.
Car-to-X communication (C2X)
Refers to the exchange of data between vehicles, the infrastructure, traffic control centers, and Internet applications using WLAN 802.11p. Individual cars both send and receive data. Other players such as traffic control centers receive, process, and forward the information.
The CO2 emissions value expressed in grams per kilometer or as a mass of gas emitted over a certain distance traveled.
The increasing exchange of information between vehicles and their surroundings.
Driving safety systems
Additional electronic devices that intervene in the driving process in critical situations, in order to preserve vehicle stability. It is not possible to override them during the intervention.
Electronic stability program (ESP)
Recognizes critical driving situations and vehicle instability on the basis of sensor data. It prevents the vehicle from going into a skid by intervening in the braking system and engine management.
The driving function “highway driving” assumes lateral and longitudinal control during highly automated driving on highways. The driver must consciously activate the system, but does not have to monitor it at all times. Under certain circumstances the system prompts the driver to resume control.
Before a car is maneuvered into a parking space, the driver gets out and uses the display key so the car drives into the space, and later pulls out of it again.
Lane departure warning
A video camera behind the windshield detects the course of the lane. The system evaluates the lane markings and warns the driver if the vehicle leaves the lane unintentionally.
Vehicle steering function.
Lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging)
System for measuring distances and relative speeds, using ultraviolet or infrared radiation or visible light.
Regulation of the vehicle‘s speed by accelerating and braking.
Cities with at least ten million inhabitants.
The distance traveled by vehicles (usually expressed in kilometers).
Parking steering assistant
In certain parking scenarios the system assumes lateral control. The driver activates the parking steering assistant, which then performs the task of steering. The driver brakes the vehicle only at the end of the parking space.
Radar (RAdio Detection And Ranging)
A measuring system using radio waves to pinpoint objects, their positions, and relative speeds.
The ultrasound, radar, lidar, and cameras that supply the vehicle with data and information about its surroundings, for example.
The combination of data from various sensors with the aim of recording the vehicle’s surroundings more exactly and with greater safety by comparing the data.
Companies that are part of the automotive industry’s value chain and supply the vehicle manufacturers with products, components, systems, etc.
Links the areas of telecommunication and information technology – linking information from at least two information systems using a telecommunication system and a special form of data processing.
Traffic control center
Collating all traffic information at one place allows targeted guidance of urban traffic, and disruptions can be minimized or even prevented entirely.
The sum total of all vehicles in a traffic flow at one point in time on one stretch of road.
Traffic jam assistant
In congestion the car drives within its own lane and keeps its distance from the vehicle in front. The driver must monitor the system all the time and intervene immediately if necessary.
System for measuring the distance to close objects.
The driving function “urban driving” can cope with complex roads in cities. At low speeds the vehicle operates without any intervention by the driver. The driver does not have to monitor the system at all.
Here, the growth of cities.
Describes the type of road (highway, urban street), speed range, and environmental conditions (weather, condition of road surface), for which an automated function can be used.
Valet parking (driverless parking)
This means that parking maneuvers are carried out fully automatically by the vehicle. The driver places the vehicle in the entry area of the parking lot/garage and activates the function (e.g. via a smartphone). As soon as they wish to continue their journey, they recall the vehicle and take charge of it in the exit area.
Number of vehicles per square kilometer, per kilometer of road, or per inhabitant.