Innovations Delivered by German Engineering
The German automotive industry produces the most efficient and the safest vehicles in the world. Every year, 30 billion euros are invested in research and development in order to extend the industry’s leading position. A large proportion of this investment feeds into the continual improvement of safety. The objective is to prevent accidents from occurring in the first place.
However, hazardous situations arise again and again in road traffic, caused by adverse conditions or human error. A large number of safety systems and driver assistance systems now exist to support the driver. They help in performing the tasks of driving. Acting in different ways, depending on their requirements and applications, they make it easier for the driver to operate the vehicle.
The German automotive industry has always played a key role in the development of driving safety and assistance systems. “ABS” was first introduced onto the market for mass production in October 1978. It prevents the individual wheels from locking when the brakes are applied, with the result that the driver can still steer the vehicle during an emergency braking maneuver.
In 1995 the Electronic Stability Program (ESP) marked another milestone in driving safety. A microcomputer monitors the signals from the ESP sensors and registers when the vehicle becomes unstable or starts to skid. By selectively applying the brakes on individual wheels and throttling engine output, ESP restores the vehicle’s stability so that it does not leave the roadway but stays on course instead.
Many innovative driver assistance systems created to increase driving comfort originated in the development centers of German vehicle manufacturers and the supply industry. Adaptive cruise control (ACC), available on the market since 1998, actively helps the driver maintain a safe distance from the vehicle in front by either braking or accelerating. The adaptive cruise control systems currently in widespread use are in fact able to brake independently, bringing the vehicle to a standstill, and to move off again automatically after a signal from the driver. Both for passenger cars and for commercial vehicles, ACC principally has a comfort function that relieves some of the stress on the driver on the highway or in constant nose-to-tail traffic. Moreover, automatic ACC also improves road safety because it helps avoid sudden emergency braking situations that arise when the vehicle is too close to the one in front or the driver’s attention lapses.
For many years now, drivers of passenger cars and commercial vehicles have widely accepted driving safety systems and advanced driver assistance systems as devices assisting them in road traffic. Today’s vehicles contain up to 100 control units, most of them in the field of engine management. Their safety potential has been proven many times over in studies and practical trials. Some systems, such as ABS and ESP, are in fact now either legally required in new vehicles or else they are installed as standard on the basis of a voluntary undertaking by the European automotive industry.