The expansion of the charging infrastructure is an important part of the electric mobility. From the customer's point of view, the attractiveness of electric vehicles depends on the simplicity of their use - so charging the battery is a crucial factor.
It is not entirely about the number and distribution of the charging stations, but also the user-friendliness. Decisive factors are unhindered access, a uniform, simple payment system and the charging time. The charging time and the position of the charging station depend on the different application scenarios:
The charging at home, at the workplace, at the destination, each with a short or long dwelling time, as well as the fast charging on the road on longer routes.
As the figure shows, charging at work or at home is the most common. In order to ensure charging in the private installation locations (85%), electric mobility has to be integrated into construction, homeownership and tenancy law.
With the entry into force of the charging station regulation on March 17th 2016, the Combined Charging System (CCS) became the standard for all charging stations in public areas. In advance, some car manufacturers have stated that they will produce all models with CSS in the future. The combined charging system ensures charging on normal charging stations with alternating current (AC charging stations) as well as fast charging with direct current (DC charging stations). This allows all application scenarios to be covered.
The Charging Infrastructure in Germany
The acceptance of Electric Mobility and thus the support of the further market ramp-up must be accompanied by a needs-based and accessible charging infrastructure as well as a positive customer experience during the charging process.
In addition to financial support, further measures and regulations and their implementation are needed to promote the development of charging infrastructure in public and private areas. For that purpose, the VDA has formulated the requirements and recommendations for a customer-friendly charging infrastructure in a paper.
According to the BDEW survey from July 2018, there are now 13,500 public and partially public charging points at around 6,700 charging stations - including 13 percent fast-charging points. Statistically, about 11 vehicles share a charging point.
In addition to charging stations in public areas, the BDEW survey also included charging stations on publicly accessible private grounds (multi-storey car parks, supermarket parking lots, etc.) .
The charging stations are recorded in the charging station register provided by the BDEW.
Power Grid Integration
The development of electric vehicles has made considerable progress in recent years.
The increasing share of electric vehicles should be accompanied by their intelligent grid integration. In addition to the vehicles, the "smart grid" also has to have other flexible terminals in a customer system, such as e.g. battery buffer or heat pumps. In the document below, the VDA has described an architecture for future network integration with a uniform method that is scalable and future-proof.
Additionally this makes the theoretical effects in simulations on electricity grids more concrete. In order to master local load peaks, charge management systems will be deployed, which help to avoid the need for a massive network expansion.
Part of these charging management systems is the principle of Reverse Power Transfer. Basically, this function is considered useful and technically feasible, but requires further evaluation and concretization within the framework of national regulations.