The expansion of the charging infrastructure is an important part of the electric mobility. From the customer's point of view, the attractiveness of electric vehicles depends on the simplicity of their use - so charging the battery is a crucial factor.
It is not entirely about the number and distribution of the charging stations, but also the user-friendliness. Decisive factors are unhindered access, a uniform, simple payment system and the charging time. The charging time and the position of the charging station depend on the different application scenarios:
The charging at home, at the workplace, at the destination, each with a short or long dwelling time, as well as the fast charging on the road on longer routes.
As the figure shows, charging at work or at home is the most common. In order to ensure charging in the private installation locations (85%), electric mobility has to be integrated into construction, homeownership and tenancy law.
With the entry into force of the charging station regulation on March 17th 2016, the Combined Charging System (CCS) became the standard for all charging stations in public areas. In advance, some car manufacturers have stated that they will produce all models with CSS in the future. The combined charging system ensures charging on normal charging stations with alternating current (AC charging stations) as well as fast charging with direct current (DC charging stations). This allows all application scenarios to be covered.
The Charging Infrastructure in Germany
There are now about 13,500 publicly accessible charging points, of which 1755 are fast charging points.
In addition to the charging stations in public areas, the BDEW survey also records charging stations on publicly accessible private property (multi-storey car parks, supermarket car parks, etc.) every six months.
The figure below depicts the development of the publicly accessible charging points form the 31st of December 2016 on the left to the 30th of June 2017 on the right.
Statistically, about 12 vehicles share a charging point.
Power Grid Integration
The development of electric vehicles has made considerable progress in recent years.
This makes the theoretical effects in simulations on electricity grids more concrete. In order to master local load peaks, charge management systems will be deployed, which help to avoid the need for a massive network expansion.
Part of these charging management systems is the principle of Reverse Power Transfer. Basically, this function is considered useful and technically feasible, but requires further evaluation and concretization within the framework of national regulations. The document below describes the contents and boundary conditions of Reverse Power Transfers.